General Information on Metabolic Surgery
The surgery type is suggested for individuals with normal weight (BMI below 30) but have severe uncontrolled diabetes. This indeed works and this surgery type aimed at reducing severe diabetes is termed as Metabolic Surgery. Medically the surgery is termed as Ileal Interposition. People with uncontrolled diabetes may also suffer from other co-morbid conditions like hypertension, cholesterol, sleep apnea, etc, Metabolic surgery is also said to bring down other co-morbid conditions.
How is the Metabolic surgery performed?
The surgical procedure involves bringing the distal (end part) part of the small intestine (ileum) nearer to the proximal (first part) part somewhere nearer to the stomach. It is basically a type of malabsorption procedure.
How is Diabetes brought under control in Metabolic Surgery?
The reason why metabolic surgery reduces diabetes is still researched. There is a popular theory that has been proposed that explains the blood sugar level becoming near normal resulting in remission from diabetes.
This theory proposes that directly passing off the food to the proximal part of the small intestine (ileum) stimulates a peptide called GLP-1. This peptide delays gastric emptying, promotes satiety (feeling of fullness), suppresses further appetite, inhibits glucagon secretion (a hormone that increases sugar level), decreases gluconeogenesis (converting fat and protein into sugar) and stimulates glycogenesis (converting sugar into glycogen).
The metabolic surgery also results in the decrease in a peptide called Ghrelin. This decrease in this peptide decreases the secretion of glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormones. These three hormones together are the antagonist of insulin. The decrease in Ghrelin also results in an increased insulin secretion.
In simple terms, the Ileal Interposition Surgery or Metabolic Surgery increases insulin sensitivity and decreases the insulin resistance resulting in remission of diabetes. It is borne in mind that metabolic surgery for diabetes is only for people that have no obesity conditions, but have severe co-morbid conditions like type-2 diabetes, etc.
Are other co-morbid conditions also reduced after undergoing Metabolic Surgery?
Yes, most of the other co-morbid conditions apart from uncontrolled blood glucose or diabetes are drastically reduced after undergoing a metabolic surgery. Here is an interesting statistics.
(1) Drastic reduction of severity of diabetes in 85% individuals who underwent this surgery for diabetes.
(2) Over 70% reduction of cholesterol level post surgery.
(3) Hypertension or high blood pressure decreased over 80%.
(4) 90% of the patients experienced near cure of sleep apnea.
(5) Improvement in joint pains.
(6) Ease of respiration.
Is Weight Loss also achieved in Metabolic Surgery for diabetes?
It has to be borne in mind that this surgery is only for people who are not obese but have uncontrolled diabetes and severe other co-morbid conditions like hypertension, high triglycerides, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, etc.
In a nutshell, people who are morbidly obese with co-morbid conditions are recommended for Bariatric Surgical Procedures and people who are of normal weight but with severe co-morbid conditions are recommended for Metabolic Surgeries. That is why this surgery is also termed as metabolic surgery for diabetes or simply surgery for diabetes.