The benefits of bariatric surgery do not confine itself to weight loss. It has been observed that co-morbid conditions associated with obesity get remission and the body begins its process of repair after any weight loss surgery is performed.
The surgery type is also suggested for individuals with normal weight (BMI below 30) but having co-morbid conditions, particularly severe diabetes, to get remission from diabetes. This indeed works and those surgery types aimed at reducing severe diabetes are termed Metabolic Surgery (Ileal Interposition).
What is done in Metabolic Surgery?
The surgery is performed using advanced laparoscopy techniques. The surgical procedure involves bringing the distal (end part) part of the small intestine (ileum) nearer to the proximal (first part) part somewhere nearer to the stomach.
How does Metabolic Surgery Reduce Diabetes?
The reason why metabolic surgery reduces diabetes is still researched. There is a popular theory that has been proposed that explains the blood sugar level becoming near normal resulting in remission from diabetes.
This theory proposes that directly passing off the food to the proximal part of the small intestine (ileum) stimulates a peptide called GLP-1. This peptide delays gastric emptying, promotes satiety (feeling of fullness), suppresses further appetite, inhibits glucagon secretion (a hormone that increases sugar level), decreases gluconeogenesis (converting fat and protein into sugar) and stimulates glycogenesis (converting sugar into glycogen).
The metabolic surgery also results in the decrease in a peptide called Ghrelin. This decrease in this peptide decreases the secretion of glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormones. These three hormones together are the antagonist of insulin. The decrease in Ghrelin also results in an increased insulin secretion.
In simple terms, the Ileal Interposition Surgery or Metabolic Surgery increases insulin sensitivity and decreases the insulin resistance resulting in remission of diabetes.
What other conditions are cured by Metabolic Surgery?
- Cholesterol level reduced by 70%
- Hypertension or high blood pressure reduced by 80%
- Near cure of Sleep Apnea